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Army Jill sitting on the hood of a WW2 jeep with the national symbol, a white star, painted on the hood.

During WW2 the white star was used as the national symbol to mark vehicles. Vehicles also had “USA” and a registration number.

 

It’s not too early to start thinking about gifts for Christmas.  You might be interested in this Santa ornament.

 

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Army Jill pauses by the 42 Ford GPW

Army Jill pauses by the 42 Ford GPW

Army Jill loves driving the WW2 Ford GPW (jeep).  When she isn’t driving it,  she likes to read, Military Maintenance for MB/GPW Jeeps 1941-45.  If you would like a copy of my book in print, the price is $34.95 plus shipping (the vendor will ship anywhere in the world!) via www.lulu.com/42fordgpw.   You can also get the book through major booksellers, like Amazon.com.  Prices subject to change.

Bantam Pilot

American Bantam Car Co. was the first to deliver what would become known as the “jeep”.

The very first 1/4-ton reconnaissance and liaison car as built by the first producer—American Bantam Car Co. This car was delivered to Holabird Quartermaster Depot on September 11, 1940.
The original Bantam jeep was lost to history.   However, the jeep has now be recreated by Duncan Rolls and looks perfect.  Here is a shot of his jeep in black and white–to me it looks like it is straight out of 1940!
Duncan Rolls' Bantam Pilot

Duncan Rolls’ Bantam Pilot

For more about Bantam and other early jeeps, check out – BANTAM, FORD AND WILLYS-1/4-TON RECONNAISSANCE CARS
See more at www.42FordGPW.com
My jeep makes tracks but nothing like this!

My jeep makes tracks but nothing like this!

During the war, it seems as if just about everything was tried or tested. This includes a jeep with complete tracks.

You can find out more about rare jeeps from WW2 in the following book:

Both books are by Mark Askew and are excellent resources. The first book entitled Rare WW2 Jeep Photo Archive 1940-1945 includes a ton of photos of specialized jeeps. The second book entitled Rare WW2 Jeep: Following On No. 1. Consider adding them to your collection of books today.

 

Bantam Pilot

American Bantam Car Co. was the first to deliver what would become known as the “jeep”.

 

This is not a story about some little chicken but a story about a little four-wheel drive vehicle built by a very small company called the American Bantam Car Company.

“It’s a quarter-ton runt with a mechanical heart and a steady constitution; it has more speed than a backfield full of All-Americans; it can climb mountains; it can fly; it can swim; it can jitterbug across rough terrain at 50 miles an hour, hauling four armed soldiers and a 37 mm gun with the same ease a hound dog carries fleas, and it is the first silk stockingless subject to enter a conversation whenever two or more Army men get together.

‘It’ is the Jeep, obviously.”

 

So begins an article written by John W. Chapman in 1942 for The Illustrated Gazette, Ottumwa, IA. The real heroes in bringing the US Army (and us) the jeep were “former Navy pilot Charles Harry Payne (left) and Col. W. F. Lee, Infantry (right).”

Harry Payne was a promoter and consultant. His job was to obtain business for companies. Col W. F. Lee was a career Army man working for the Chief of Infantry. One of his jobs was to help develop a light vehicle for Infantry use.

The man that should know the most about their involvement with what would become the jeep is Major General George A. Lynch. He said the Infantry needed the jeep before it was every known as the jeep. It was under his leadership that specifications were drawn up. The article by John Chapman says that Harry Payne came calling in the halls of the Infantry and met with Col Lee and MG Lynch. He first arrived on June 5, 1940, to investigate rumors of a contract being let to build quantities of the ‘Howie Carriers’. Mr. Payne had said that the Chief of Staff was interested in the carriers. But the Chief of Infantry was not interested in that vehicle. After a couple of days of discussion, it became clear to Payne that the Army (at least the Infantry) was not going to purchase the carriers.

“It was at this point that Payne and Colonel Lee began putting their ideas together for the now famous jeep, and Lee’s report said that ‘Payne was very enthusiastic from the start, and continued to maintain an optimistic attitude toward the final results in spite of the many obstacles, technical and administrative, in his path.’ While Payne was primarily interested in getting business for his company, Lee said, he also showed a keen interest in doing what he could to help the Infantry develop the car it needed.”

After the details were worked out, Col Lee needed to obtain support from others on the Technical Committee that worked on advancing automotive ideas toward production. Only the cavalry representative, Major Frank Tompkins, offered support and then only because Col. Lee agreed to support a cavalry. The great ‘weapon’ of the Second World War was off to an inauspicious start to be sure. The Quartermasters office was not interested in the small vehicle but agreed not to stand in the way of development. ‘None of the others, including the Field Artillery, would join us,’ according to Lee.

Because the Quartermaster was not responsive to the needs of the Infantry in seeking a lightweight vehicle, MG Lynch agreed with Col Lee’s proposal to move the matter to the Ordnance Committee. Col. Barnes in Ordnance was contacted and he agreed to help. He suggested that the requirement of the jeep include a small strip of armor plate for the driver. In those days armored vehicles were developed by Ordnance and non-armored, general purpose vehicles were developed by the Quartermaster Corps.

Payne became known as an ‘annoying pest’ as he tried to sell the idea of the light reconnaissance car to the other using arms and services. It was considered nothing new but only a light car.

It took Lee and Payne about a week to draw up the characteristics of the new vehicle.

After the QMC was involved, Holabird took over and the jeep became the Quartermaster General’s ‘baby’ according to the Chapman article. The article alleges that Willys-Overland took a different turn in the quest for the 1/4-ton and became very interested in building it. According to the article, W-O representatives were seen doing a ‘minute’ inspection of the Bantam vehicle.

The article further alleges that W-O won the standardization contract by offering a ridiculously low bid. This effective ended Bantam’s production at approximately 3,000 1/4-ton trucks. Also claimed that a Mr. John Biggers was involved with the award to Willys. Mr. Biggers worked at OPM. This led to an investigation of the QMC and Mr. Biggers by the Truman committee. Whether or not any wrongdoing was ever found is not indicated but Mr. Biggers left the OPM shortly there-after.

Mr. Payne was let go shortly after helping to win contracts of about 3,000 trucks for Bantam. Payne revealed that he was never an ‘official of the Bantam company but acted as assistant to the president.’

Bantam - The First To Deliver

Bantam – The First To Deliver

In closing, Col. Lee had this to say, ‘My only interest in the development of the car was to contribute something useful for Infantry combat and I believe that what I have done toward the project warrants the assumption of some credit for a fair share of that contribution. I have not made a definite effort to obtain such credit nor did I believe I should make such an effort…What can be done will probably be started by Mr. Payne because it means a livelihood to him. I would like to see him rewarded for the results he obtained because he helped us produce the car we knew was greatly needed.’

This is allegedly the ‘true’ story of how the jeep came to be. Looking at the documentation that once belonged to MG Lynch it seems that the story presented here is correct. We may never know the complete story.

 

What we do know is that jeep went on to become one of the great weapons of war for the Allies during WW2. After that war the 1/4-ton, 4×4, truck has continued in one form or another. Everyone recognizes the “Jeep” (”Jeep” is a trademark of Chrysler.)

Do you ever think about jeep parts? I do...

Is there more to this story?

There are two more versions to this story.  The first version was written during WW2 by H. Rifkind, entitled, Jeep – Its development and procurement under the Quartermaster Corps, 1940-1942.  This is the “complete” story at least from the Quartermaster Corps point of view. Another view to read to really get the best understanding of who designed and built the jeep, read Project Management in History: The First Jeep (Project Management in History Series) (Volume 1).  This is a book about project management but that doesn’t get in the way of relaying the Bantam story!

 

What about the Rzeppa?

What about the Rzeppa?

One of the three types of constant velocity joints used in the jeep during WW2 is the Rzeppa. Rzeppa is pronounced “sheppa”.

Continue below for the WW2 jeep Rzeppa joint…
typical ball joint parts

A typical joint in disassembled form. Showing most of the pieces.

axle shafts assembly

You should be able to pull the axle shafts straight out of the knuckle after removing the spindle.

retainer detail

A question was asked about instructions in TM 9-1803B…Above is a detail shot of what I believe was being referred to… (If you don’t have the manual you can find a copy at Amazon by following the link above.)

“TM 9-1803B talked about a retainer and some screws? Do I pull the axle shaft and then remove this retainer and screws to remove the joint?”

Remove the three flat head screws then you can take the cv joint apart by following the instructions in the TM.

axle parts

An illustration showing the various parts. Note the three screws. These are in a washer-like object, called a retainer, that mates the two shafts together.

Betties Bulldogs Metal Sign, WW II Airplane Nose Art, Pinup Girl, Vintage Decor

A pinup shot of Army Jill

A pinup shot of Army Jill.

 

Jill poses in a WW2 bathing suit. Amazon.com has some interesting related items.

Aces High Metal Sign, WW II Airplane Nose Art, Pinup Girl, Vintage Mancave Decor.  You know you need this!  Well, okay maybe you just want this hanging on your wall.

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