What were the jeeps before they were called jeeps?

What were the jeeps before they were called jeeps?

Today we know what a “JEEP” is and can easily recognize it as a product of Chrysler Group LLC.  But back at the beginning there was quite a bit of confusion as all these vehicles looked a like to most civilians and military men as well.  But there were differences to be sure and in the end only one design could be selected.

Pilots – BRC (”1″), Pygmy, Budd and Quad.  These were models required to be tested and accepted prior to production of the contracted order. The Budd was not accepted nor tested by the US Army and was returned to Ford.

Bantam on test.Bantam Pilot on test

Engineering Models or Educational Order – BRC-60s.  An educational order was used to test the merit of the proposed product and to test the ability of the contractor to deliver the contracted item.

Prototypes – BRC-40, GP and MA (orders that started with 1500 each for experimentation and further development – order totalled more than 1500 as requirements increased as the war in Europe progressed.). These were models “rushed” into production and widely tested.

Bantam BRC

Above, is pictured a Bantam BRC-40 (one of the “1500″).

Ford GP

Above is pictured the Ford GP (one of the “1500″)

Willys MA

Willys-Overland MA, pictured above (one of “1500″)

Standardized – MB/GPW (Willys awarded the contract for the first 16,000 “standardized” 1/4-tons and subsequently the QMC negotiated with Ford to be an alternate supplier). The US Army wanted to standardized on one vehicle, reducing the logistical support obligations to one vehicle instead of three very different vehicles.

girl sitting on jeep.

Postwar picture of one of the thousands of 1/4-tons built by Ford.  It is a GPW built under license by Ford to Willys specifications.  Willys-Overland  had the primary contract and built the majority of 1/4-tons (Model MB) for the war.

In my example, as far as I know only the BRC and Pygmy were “accepted” and led to further production under contract. Well, this is not exactly true–Willys submitted the Quad in Nov 1940 and according to Senate testimony it failed…but because of weight (no mention of engine failures or requiring three engines here). The Willys “pilot” was not accepted until June or July 1941! It was not fully tested according to testimony but was examined.

We see an example of “pilot” in the contract language I listed earlier. Interesting enough, the testimony by Mr. Fenn (Pres of American Bantam Car Co.) on August 6, 1941 indicated he built 70 pilot models! During the hearing those 70 are also referred to as an “educational order”.

Further testimony during the Senate hearings from a Col Van Deusen indicates at least the QMC position. The orders (1500) from Bantam, Ford and Willys were “test purposes”. Originally, it was supposed to be 500 from each supplier. “The 1,500 cars were to be as experimental development type for service tests, quantity tests in service…” A Mr. Fulton on the committee, “And that was because you wanted to experiment further before standardizing your specifications?”. Van Deusen, “That is true.” This really sounds like “prototype” to me.

For more about the early jeeps you might be interested in my book: BANTAM, FORD AND WILLYS-1/4-TON RECONNAISSANCE CARS. Another good book covering the early jeep history is by H. Rifkind, Jeep – Its development and procurement under the Quartermaster Corps, 1940-1942.

The subject of using silicone versus regular brake fluid comes up several times a year among old vehicle collectors.

Silicone brake fluid: yes or no?

Silicone brake fluid: yes or no?

Regular brake fluid can be a good paint remover. Of course, if you plan ahead for a spill, it isn’t that big a deal. But is silicone brake fluid the be all, end all cure for poor paint surfaces and poor maintenance technique? Consider that while silicone will not remove paint, it can lead to what is called “cupping” where paint will not adhere to the surface being painted. So it could be a concern if you have to do any touch ups at a later time.

Which to use? Appears to settle upon a few factors:

1. If your preventive maintenance skills are lax then the use of silicone is likely your best bet. If you are capable of changing your brake fluid every couple of years then perhaps glycol is best for you.

2. If you can’t fill the master cylinder without spilling it all over your painted surface then perhaps silicone is the way to go. However, be forewared that while silicone doesn’t eat paint it keeps it from adhering to the surface and leads to “cupping”.

3. If you have more money then time then silicone is perhaps best for you. In most places the same quantity of silicone is several times the cost of glycol. But on the flip side you will need to replace your glycol several more times than silicone.

4. Do you drive your jeep thru water, wet roads when it rains? The jeeps’, like many brake systems are open to the atmosphere. Glycol is designed to absorb moisture and has inhibitors designed to reduce corrosion. Silicone is not designed to absorb water.  Moisture will pool in silicone and can lead to corrosion.

5. Spongy feeling. Silicone has a higher compressability then glycol which can lead to a spongy brake pedal sensation. Silicone has a slower pour rate (higher viscosity) than glycol. This may explain why it can be difficult to bleed the air from silicone equipped brakes. Once air is mixed into silicone (bubbles) it can take a long while to bleed it out.

Check out these articles:

http://www.sdvsa.org/BrakeFluidFacts.htm
http://www.adlersantiqueautos.com/articles/brake1.html http://www.adlersantiqueautos.com/articles/brake2.html

Don’t forget to visit my website, www.42FordGPW.com and check out our sponsors!

I love my jeep

I love my jeep.  But how did it get it’s name?

There’s a book by Paul Dickson, “War Slang: American Fighting Words and Phrases Since the Civil War, Second Edition“” that says the jeep is “1, a small, low, khaki-colored car in general use in the Army. 2, a rookie; a recruit.” OR you could go with his quote from another source, San Francisco Call-Bulletin, November 22, 1941, “Do you know why those swift little army cars are called ‘jeeps’? It’s Model G-P produced by that automobile manufacturer–and G-P easily becomes ‘jeep’.” In 1941 Ford was producing a vehicle for the Army that was a model GP. The vehicle pictured in this blog below is actually a 1941 Ford GP.

The unfortunate thing is that the War Slang book does not mention the jeep term being used during WWI or the inter-war period.

If you are interested in finding out more about WW2 era jeeps then you might want to check out my book on the subject: BANTAM, FORD AND WILLYS-1/4-TON RECONNAISSANCE CARS.

It might be a bit too cold to change the oil on your WW2 jeep right now.  However, it won’t be long when you will need to climb under the jeep, turn some wrenches and get that oil changed.

I really do hate dirty oil, don't you?

I really do hate dirty oil, don’t you?

Occasionally it will be necessary to flush the oil system because of an accumulation of sludge or other foreign material. Here are some instructions from WW2 manuals:

  • Drain the oil from the system after warming the engine to normal operating temperature. Be sure to useCAUTION as the oil will be HOT.
  • Fill the oil pan to half the indicated level with light engine oil.
  • Start the engine and allow it to warm up thoroughly. This will allow the light oil to clean the system. Watch the oil pressure gage, and stop the engine at the slightest sign of low oil pressure. This may be caused by a clogged strainer.
  • When the engine is thoroughly warmed, turn off the engine and drain the oil.
  • Fill to the proper level with the correct engine oil.
  • If the oil filter has a replaceable filter element, inspect it and replace if necessary.
 
Caution: These are recommendations from WW2, always consider if this practice is considered safe for you or your equipment for proceeding. If you follow these instructions I would use extreme caution and watch closely the oil pressure gauge. I would also try using 10w oil as my “cleaner” and I would fill it till it was at the full mark instead of half. The sump pickup in a jeep may not pickup the oil if it is only half full. I suggest always changing the oil filter when changing the oil. But I wouldn’t change the filter until after the cleaning. Again, exercise caution.
 
Whether you new at mechanics or just new around WW2 military vehicles, you might be interested in Automotive Trouble Shooting for WW2 Wheeled Vehicles: Volume 1 and Automotive Trouble Shooting For WW2 Wheeled Vehicles, Volume 2.
Don't you just hate it when you hear rattles?
Don’t you just hate it when you hear rattles?

[1] A rattling sound, apparently originating in the clutch, may be caused if the clutch-pedal pull-back spring is disconnected. Connect the spring, and check to see if the rattling is eliminated.
[2] If rattling continues it may due to weak pressure-plate retracting springs or excessive clearance between driving lugs and cover. The clutch assembly must be replaced.

Other trouble shooting information and tips can be found in the following two volumes:

Automotive Trouble Shooting For World War Two Wheeled Vehicles, Volume 1,The GARAGE version with a spiral wire binding so that the book can lay flat! Automotive Trouble Shooting For World War Two Wheeled Vehicles,Volume 1, is a useful manual for anyone. Do you know what to do when the cranking motor will not crank the engine? Engine fails to start? No spark? Misfiring at high speeds or under full load? Problems with your battery or battery cables? Do you know how to adjust your breaker points? Inspect the coil? Do you know how to polarize the generator? Use a jump wire to test your main light switch? Adjust your headlights? Trouble shoot your carburetor or fuel pump? All these and much more are covered. Put a copy in your truck for those little roadside emergencies! Originally produced by the US Gov’t, Ordnance School, Aberdeen Proving Ground, August, 1945. Edited by Robert Notman. Product Number: 16997587

Automotive Trouble Shooting For WW2 Vehicles (Gar)(Paperback)$24.95. Also available from Amazon.com and other fine bookstores!

Automotive Trouble Shooting For World War Two Wheeled Vehicles, Volume 2, is a useful manual for anyone and it takes off where volume one ended! Learn about the engine oil system. Do you know what to look for when rebuilding a block? Problems with valves? Find out how to trouble shoot and adjust the valves for wheeled vehicles. Problems with the clutch rattling? Check this manual out! Worried about your transmission or transfer case making noises? Check out the trouble shooting section. Any noises coming from your propeller shafts, universal joints or axles? Its discussed here. Trouble shooting the wheels, hubs, and rims? Chassis. Steering. Do you have brake problems, including Hydrovac brakes? Its all here and much more. Put a copy in your WW2 truck for those little roadside emergencies! Originally produced by the US Gov’t, Ordnance School, Aberdeen Proving Ground, August, 1945.Edited by Robert Notman. Product Number: 57304889

To order on line click the product number above OR call TOLLFREE (US) at 877.809.1659 and give the operator the product number. Ships worldwide. Prices subject to change.

Check out BANTAM, FORD AND WILLYS—1/4-TON RECONNAISSANCE CARS

This book covers the Bantam BRC, Ford GP and the Willys MA. There are many pages of original documents that have not been published before (as far as I know, anyway).


Lots of detailed photos of all three jeeps!

These jeeps are on display at the Veterans Memorial Museum of Huntsville, AL.

Description:
The 1/4-ton, 4×4, truck of World War Two started out in the hands of the Infantry and a little company called American Bantam Car Company. Bantam worked with the Army’s Quartermaster Corps to produce the pilot model that was accepted and then fulfilled their initial contract for 70 trucks. During testing of the pilot both Ford and Willys-Overland were invited to check out this new vehicle. The vehicles were studied in great detail. Soon, at their own expense, Ford and Willys-Overland submitted pilots for testing too. This book covers the production prototypes–Bantam BRC-40, Ford GP and the Willys MA.
For more information, see BANTAM, FORD AND WILLYS—1/4-TON RECONNAISSANCE CARS.


(Front Cover)lulu.com, also available from Amazon.com and other fine booksellers!

Product Details:
Printed: 170 pages, 8.50″ x 11.00″, perfect binding, 60# white interior paper, black and white interior ink , 100# exterior paper, full-color exterior ink
ISBN: 978-1-84728-188-3
Publisher: Robert Notman
Copyright: © 2006 by Robert Notman Standard Copyright License
Language: English

Cost: $24.95 plus shipping. Shipped worldwide!


Visit http://www.42fordgpw.com/

The Complete WW2 Military Jeep Manual can help you with just about everything except mud!!!

The Complete WW2 Military Jeep Manual (Brooklyns Militarey Vehicles)If you own a WW2 jeep or are interested in purchasing one, you need The Complete WW2 Military Jeep Manual.  This is a reprint of several jeep manuals you will need to operate and repair your jeep.  They won’t be especially helpful in restoring  your jeep but they do contain a ton of information on how to operate your “new” jeep as well as steps on how to repair it.  Need to rebuild your front or rear axle?  That’s covered.  Want to rebuild your transmission? Covered as well.

It’s a good collection and well worth the price while you look to collect the originals!

I just love a good book…Don’t you?

A book that has been in my collection for a very long time and is still in print, WW2 Jeep Military Portfolio 1941-1945, is a book worthy of your consideration.  It has a number of period articles and even some from years after the introduction of the jeep to the world.  It isn’t a book that will help you with your restoration but adds a bit of knowledge to your kit of facts to help you understand the jeep.

Some time ago I posted the “6 step” process to help you figure out what is wrong with your engine. It is actually a tune up process as well but very handy as a trouble shooting solution.

It all starts here, Trouble Shooting – Engine.  Click on the circles or just click next to step through each one. It all starts with the sparkplugs. These instructions are useful to any wheeled World War Two vehicle, like the jeep, 1/2-ton Dodge, etc.

This process will make you an “expert” in no time…

You might be interested in this book…

Automotive Trouble Shooting For WW2 Vehicles (Gar)
by Robert Notman

$24.95 plus shipping  (Price subject to change.)

AVAILABILITY: In Stock, will ship in 2 business days Product Number: 16997587
Tell a friend about this book!
Genre: AutomobilesPaperback: 113 pages
Description: A “garage” version of the Trouble Shooting for WW2 Wheeled Vehicles, Pt 1.

Synopsis: The GARAGE version with a spiral wire binding so that the book can lay flat! Automotive Trouble Shooting For WW2 Wheeled Vehicles, Volume 1, is a useful manual for anyone. Do you know what to do when the cranking motor will not crank the engine? Engine fails to start? No spark? Misfiring at high speeds or under full load? Problems with your battery or battery cables? Do you know how to adjust your breaker points? Inspect the coil? Do you know how to polarize the generator? Use a jump wire to test your main light switch? Adjust your headlights? Trouble shoot your carburetor or fuel pump? All these and much more are covered. Put a copy in your truck for those little roadside emergencies!

Book Details:

  • · Paperback: 113 pages
  • · Binding: Wire-O
  • · Publisher: Robert Notman (January 2005)
  • · Product Number: 16997587

Available on line at http://www.cafepress.com/42fordgpw.16997587 or

by calling  877.809.1659 TOLL FREE in the US. Ships WORLD-WIDE and accepts major credit cards.

Should the rear seat have holes in it?

Do you have problems with your transmission?

The WW2 jeep has many great features and many were first used in the diminutive vehicle.  Not all of the features were all that great. This include the T-84 which was a marginal transmission to use with the 60hp engine and was dumped after the war.  Still it is a testimony of sorts to realize that all of the WW2 jeeps had a T-84 transmission and it managed to help win the war.

Does it slip out of gear? This condition may be caused by weak or broken shift-rod poppet springs, a bent shifting fork, or excessive wear of the gears. The transmission must be replaced or repaired.

If you have a WW2 jeep with a T-84J transmission then you might want to purchase my book, Trouble Shooting And Rebuilding The T-84J.

Don’t make your girl wait, get that transmission fixed today!