I like my jeep to be started correctly...don't you?

I like my jeep to be started correctly…don’t you?

Before starting your World War Two jeep, take a look at the US Army instructions from TM 9-803 Willys-Overland MB and Ford Model GPW Jeep Technical Manual. Still pretty good advice after about 70 or so years.

a. This inspection schedule is designed primarily as a check to see that the vehicle has not been tampered with or sabotaged since the After-operation Service was performed. Various combat conditions may have rendered the vehicle unsafe for operation, and it is the duty of the driver to determine whether or not the vehicle is in condition to carry out any mission to which it is assigned. This operation will not be entirely omitted, even in extreme tactical situations.

b. Procedures. Before-operation Service consists of inspecting items listed below according to the procedure described, and correcting or reporting any deficiencies. Upon completion of the service, results should be reported promptly to the designated individual in authority.

(1) ITEM 1, TAMPERING AND DAMAGE. Examine exterior of vehicle, engine, wheels, brakes, and steering control for damage by falling debris, shell fire, sabotage, or collision. If wet, dry the ignition parts to ensure easy starting. Ed. Note: Of course in the modern era you aren’t likely to have most of these but if this is the first time you’ve driven this particularly jeep, it’s a good idea to eyeball everything carefully.

(2) ITEM 2, FIRE EXTINGUISHER. Be sure fire extinguisher is full, nozzle is clean, and mountings secure. Ed. Note: The World War Two fire extinguisher used carbon tet is considered unsafe and obsolete today–you might invest in a modern fire extinguisher to keep on hand.

(3) ITEM 3, FUEL, OIL, AND WATER. Check fuel tank, crankcase, and radiator for leaks or tampering. Add fuel, oil, or water as needed. Have value of antifreeze checked. If, during period when antifreeze is used, it becomes necessary to replenish a considerable amount of water, report unusual losses.

(4) ITEM 4, ACCESSORIES AND DRIVES. Inspect carburetor, generator, regulator, cranking motor, and water pump for loose connections and security of mountings. Inspect carburetor and water pump for leaks.

(5) ITEM 6, LEAKS, GENERAL. Look on ground under vehicle for indications of fuel, oil, water, brake fluid, or gear oil leaks. Trace leaks to source, and correct or report to higher authority.

(6) ITEM 7, ENGINE WARM-UP. Start engine, observe cranking motor action, listen for unusual noise, and note cranking speed. Idle engine only fast enough to run smoothly. Proceed immediately with following services while engine is warming up.

(7) ITEM 8, CHOKE. As engine warms, push in choke as required for smooth operation, and to prevent oil dilution.


(a) Fuel Gage. Fuel gage should indicate approximate amount of fuel in tank.

(b) Oil Pressure Gage. Normal oil pressure should not be below 10 with engine idling, and should range from 40 to 50 at running speeds (at normal operating temperature). If gage fails to register within 30 seconds, stop engine, and correct or report to higher authority.

(c) Temperature Indicator. Temperature should rise slowly during warm-up. Normal operating temperature range is 1600F to 1850 F.

(d) Ammeter. Ammeter should show high charge for short period after starting and positive (plus) reading above 12 to 15 miles per hour with lights and accessories off. Zero reading is normal with lights and accessories on.

(9) ITEM 10, HORN AND WINDSHIELD WIPERS. Sound horn, tactical situation permitting, for proper operation and tone. Check both wipers for secure attachment and normal full contact operation through full stroke.

(10) ITEM 11, GLASS AND REAR VIEW MIRROR. Clean windshield and rear view mirror and inspect for cracked, discolored, or broken glass. Adjust mirror.

(11) ITEM 12, LIGHTS AND REFLEICTORS. Try switches in each position and see if lights responds Lights and warning reflectors must be securely mounted, clean, and in good condition. Test foot control of headlight beams.

(12) ITEM.13, WHEEL AND FLANGE NUTS. Observe whether or not all wheel and flange nuts are present and tight.

(13) ITEM 14, TIRES. If time permits, test tires with gage, including spare; normal pressure is 35 pounds with tires cold. Inspect tread and carcass for cuts and bruises. Remove embedded objects from treads.

(14) ITEM 15, SPRINGS AND SUSPENSION. Inspect springs for sagged or broken leaves, shifted leaves, and loose or missing rebound clips.

(15) ITEM 16, STEERING LINKAGE. Examine steering gear case, connecting links, and pitman arm for security and good condition. Test steering adjustment, and free motion of steering wheel.

(16) ITEM 17, FENDERS AND BUMPERS. Examine fenders and bumpers for secure mounting and serviceable condition.

(17) ITEM 18, TOWING CONNECTIONS. Examine pintle hook for secure mounting and serviceable condition. Be sure pintle latches properly and locks securely.

(18) ITEM 19, BODY AND LOAD. Examine body and load (if any) for damage. Be sure there is a cap on front drain hole under fuel tank. See that rear drain hole cap is available in glove compartment. CAUTION: Rear drain hole cap should be installed when about to pass through deep water.

(19) ITEM 20, DECONTAMINATOR. Examine decontaminator for full charge and secure mountings.

(20) ITEM 21, TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT. See that tools and equipment are all present, properly stowed, and serviceable.

(21) ITEM 23, DRIVER’S PERMIT AND FORM 26. Driver must have his operator’s permit on his person. See that vehicle manuals, Lubrication Guide, Form No. 26 (accident report) and W.D. AGO Form No. 478 (MWO and Major Unit Assembly Replacement Record) are
present, legible, and properly stowed.

(22) ITEM 22, ENGINE OPERATION. Accelerate engine and observe for unusual noises indicating compression or exhaust leaks; worn, damaged, loose, and inadequately lubricated parts or misfiring.

(23) ITEM 25, DURING-OPERATION SERVICE. Begin the During operation Service immediately after the vehicle is put in motion.


You might be interested in Automotive Trouble Shooting for WW2 Wheeled Vehicles: Volume 1  for information on how to get going!

Original from WW2 Army Motors….

A round-up of SNL’S . . . six different kinds carry tool information.
Do you ever just sit around and wonder about tools and tool lists? I do. Here is some lists and info that I've found. ..why not ponder this list?

Do you ever just sit around and wonder about tools and tool lists? I do. Here is some lists and info that I’ve found. ..why not ponder this list?

Every afternoon our office boy rushes in with a little white pamphlet, tosses it on our desk, and screams, “Latest tool list, Jackson.” And every afternoon we throw the latest tool list whizzing past his left ear, to a mounting pile of latest tool lists we keep in the northeast corner of the office. This morning we decided to sort out the pile. We found not one, not two, but six different’ kinds of tool lists, all published in SNL’s. And you in the 1st and 2nd-echelons are supposed to be using at least two kinds, maybe three or four.

Some of them cover common tools (that is, tools you can use on most all vehicles), and some cover special tools (designed for one vehicle, but maybe interchangeable on a few others).
Some are used as a basis of issue (mention ‘em and you can have anything that’s legal), and others aren’t. For those’ that aren’t, the Table of Organization and Equipment (T/O&E) is very often the basis of issue.

These are what we found:

1) Organizational Spare Parts and Equipment (OSPE). These are individual pamphlets for each make and model of vehicle. They tell what tools the vehicle itself carries (first-echelon tools), and what special tools the second .echelon will need to maintain it.
OSPE’s are used as a basis of issue.

2) Tool Sets, Motor Transport (SNL N-19). This one has a tool by-tool listing, with pictures, of everything in the second-echelon unit equipment sets (including the Armored Command sets), plus the hand-tool kits of general automotive mechanics and automotive specialists. It’s good only for identifying the tools in the sets; the basis for requisitioning sets is the company’s T /O&E.

3) Special Tools for Combat Vehicles (SNL G-175). Here’s where you find an ABC list of all tools used by any or all echelons for maintenance of combat vehicles. It has pictures, tells the stock numbers, piece-mark or drawing numbers, and SNL numbers for each and every tool. It is not a basis for issue (use the OSPE instead). Sorry, but there’s no publication like it for transport vehicles at present.

4) Interchangeability Chart of Organizational Special Tools for Combat Vehicles (SNL G-19).

This baby tells you how to save weight in your 2nd-echelon tool load, and at the same time help to avoid tool waste. It’s a cross reference to special tools that can be used on more than one vehicle. For instance, if you already have an idler-wheel puller (41-P-2940800) for maintaining the M12 Gun Motor Carriage, this SNL tells you the same tool will fit 15 other motor buggies. Like G-175, this one is for combat vehicles, and is published for information only. It is not to be used as a basis of requisitioning.

5) Tools, Maintenance, for Repair of Automotive Vehicles (SNL G-27) is a 3rd and 4th-echelon publication, for Ordnance outfits only. It lists their unit-equipment sets, their special tools for component parts of vehicles (such as voltage regulators, brakes, etc.), their special tools for specific makes and models of vehicles, and a few additional kinds of special equipment. This publication is a basis for requisitioning and issue of all special tool sets allowed to Ordnance organizations for maintenance of combat vehicles.

6) Shop SNLs. These give complete tool lists for certain types of shops-all of them Ordnance shops, with the exception of SNL N -23, which covers unit equipment for posts, camps, and stations.

So you see, gentlemen, this is what you will need:

First echelon:
For your vehicle tool set-the OSPE for your vehicle. It provides a basis for requisition, and identifies the tools with stock numbers and pictures.

Second echelon:
If you have transport vehicles only, you’ll need your organizational T/O&E (as basis for requisitioning unit sets of common tools), SNL N-19 (for details of the tool sets), and each vehicle’s OSPE (as basis for requisitioning special tools).

If you service combat vehicles also, you’ll need in addition to the above, SNL G-175, which gives pictures and full identification of special tools for combat vehicles; and SNL G-19, which gives you the dope on interchangeability.

Ordnance shops:
Ordnance shops will get most of their information from SNL G-27, including the basis of issue for special tools. Basis of issue for unit equipment sets of 3rd and 4th-echelon tools is contained in the organization’s T/O&E, but details of the sets are published in G-27. In addition, you can find pictures of special tools in SNL G-175.

If your outfit is covered by a shop SNL (and they’re rare-but consult the new OFSB 1-1 for the list), that will be your Bible, of course.

This is the conclusion to yesterday’s article. It has been extracted from Military Maintenance for MB/GPW 1941-1945.  Originally appearing in WW2 Army Motors.

It's gonna get cold so store your jeep correctly!

It’s gonna get cold so store your jeep correctly!


What IS Limited Storage? If vehicles are to be out of service for 30 days or something less. or if vehicles. have to be ready for operation on call but are mostly just standing around. they are Placed In what IS called limited storage. The following protective measures must be taken.

Battery. Preparing the vehicle for limited storage begin with the battery. If it shows signs of corrosion, remove it, plug the vent holes and clean it with a solution of soda ash or baking soda and water to neutralize the acid.

When you use soda ash, make the solution eight ounces to the gallon of water. If it’s to be a baking-soda mixture, use one pound of soda to a gallon of water. Clean the cable ends with the same solution.

After the soda bath, rinse the battery off with cold water – not hot water or steam. When you’re done, don’t forget to take the plugs out of the vents. Then scrape the battery posts and cable. terminals to insure good contact – even the few minutes the battery is out being cleaned is enough for an insulating coating of oxide to form on the terminals, Coat the battery terminals.
whether the battery is removed for cleaning or not, with petrolatum or light grease.

Never store a vehicle without first taking a hydrometer reading of each battery cell, If the reading is 1.225 or less, the battery needs to be recharged. Add distilled water (or if you can’t get any, pure drinking water will do) to bring the electrolyte level above the plates, but not more than 1/4″ above, If you expect to run into sub-zero temperatures, you’d better charge vehicle batteries to at least a 1.275 gravity reading, to protect it against freezing. The electrolyte’s resistance to freezing increases with the amount of charge.

Cooling system. Give the cooling system a good going over for leaks, and again, if you expect to hit freezing temperatures, test the antifreeze solution and add as much anti-freeze as you need.

Tires. Nothing is more important or more scarce than rubber (or had you heard?) so tires get the works. Clean ‘em, inspect ‘em and see that they are properly inflated, spares and all. If any of them need repair or retread – replace them with serviceable tires. Don’t put vehicles on floors, cinders or other surfaces that are soaked with oil or grease, If any oil, grease, gasoline or kerosene comes in contact with tires under any circumstances at all, wash it off immediately.

Road test!

Road test!

Road test. After giving the vehicle all these services, give it a road-test. Run it at  least five miles – the air will do you good – and besides it never hurts to check the general condition of the unit. Correct any defects or jot them on the tag you’re going to put on the steering wheel.

Engine. Start the engine inspection at the oil dipstick. Bring the oil up to the proper level, adding the grade called for under temperature conditions expected during the storage period.

Remove the air cleaner from the carburetor, start the engine and let it run at a fast idle. Pour one pint of oil (Oil, lubricating, preservative, medium, Ordnance Department Specification ASX-674, of the latest issue in effect.) into the carburetor throat. Pour it in slowly so it won’t kill the engine – turn off the key immediately after the oil has been poured into the carburetor. With the ignition switch off, and the throttle wide open, turn the engine over five revolutions with the starter. This will leave a protective oil-film on the piston, the cylinder wall and other upper-cylinder parts. Replace the air cleaner.

Brakes. Check the wheels and release the brake. If they’re air brakes, drain the air reservoirs thoroughly by opening the drain valves wide. When no water shows in the air stream, close the drain valves tightly.

Exteriors. Sandpaper off any rust you find on any part of the truck before storing it. To protect the wood or metal, repaint any painted surface that appears to need it. Coat exposed, polished metal-surfaces with oil. (Oil, lubricating, preservative, medium.) Even nice, shiny chromium will rust easier than you expect. Also use this oil to coat winch cables and chains. Close the windshields, and the cab-doors and windows on closed-cab types. Raise the top and install curtains and close the windshield on vehicles with open cabs. Paulins and curtains must be in place and firmly secured. Unroll rubber floor-mats, where provided, and put them in place on the floor. Leave equipment like pioneer tools, tire chains, and the fire extinguishers in their proper place in the vehicle.

When finally you have your trucks all neatly stored, you can’t just go away and forget ‘em. Vehicles in limited storage need a little routine inspection every week. Here’s a minimum weekly inspection under ordinary circumstances. If it needs it, give the battery the same service it got when you first stored it. If you add any water when freezing weather is expected, recharge the battery with a portable charger, or remove it for recharge – don’t try to bring it up by running the engine.

Inspect your tires again, repair any leaks that, may have shown up while the vehicles were sitting, and inflate tires to normal pressure. When vehicles are in ‘on-call’ limited storage for more than thirty days, give them the following monthly service in addition to the weekly inspections:

Remove the oil-filler cap and start the engine. Watch the oil-pressure gage – if it doesn’t pick up immediately, turn off the engine and report the fact to the officer in charge. If the gage registers oil pressure, let the engine idle. Close the choke as soon as the engine will run without it. When the radiator temperature reaches 180 degrees F. (if~necessary cover the radiator to build up this temperature) advance the throttle to a fast idle, (not faster than 800 R.P.M.) and let the engine run at this speed and temperature for 30 minutes. After you stop the engine, put back the oil-filler cap.

Caution: If you’ve got a volatile anti-freeze like alcohol in the cooling system, check it every five minutes and add more as needed.

Repeat the ENGINE SERVICES, THE COOLING SYSTEM SERVICES, and THE EXTERIOR SERVICES, inspection when removed from limited storage. When you take vehicle out of limited storage, take care of all repair items noted on the steering-wheel tag, give it the complete monthly maintenance inspection prescribed in Q.M.C. Form 260, plus any repairs the inspection shows to be necessary.

The following is the first of a two part story on how to store your vehicles.

(conclusion tomorrow.)
I know it is picnic weather but it is never too early to think about storing your vehicle.

I know it is picnic weather but it is never too early to think about storing your vehicle.

I know it is picnic weather but it is never too early to think about storing your vehicle.  This article has been extracted from Military Maintenance for MB/GPW 1941-1945.  Originally appearing in an issue of the WW2 Army Motors.

First came the ugly rumors – then, when a fearful little band of inspectors deployed throughout the field and returned with confirmation of the rumors, the authorities knew that the time for action had arrived.

The first stories merely reported the field as ‘utterly confused over what to do with vehicles in ‘limited storage’ -and this of course, was no cause for alarm.

But when reports came in of certain outfits running their stored trucks for about fifteen minutes daily to ‘charge the batteries, distribute lube throughout the engine, etc.: followed by a story of three separate and distinct organizations using mothballs to put their vehicles in storage*, the revision of 850-18 began, Running trucks for a few minutes or a few miles daily to keep ‘em in shape is strictly no good, You all know that for every gallon of gasoline burned, a gallon of water is produced. Well, a good part of this water makes it’s way into the crankcase – and while normally, it’s evaporated by the engine heat, running the trucks for only fifteen or so minutes never works up enough heat to evaporate the water.  Consequently, it stays in the crankcase and forms sludge, acid and headaches.

Anyway, that’s the sort of thing that brought about the revision of AR 850-18 which will start to hit the field sometime in the near future. But in the meantime the first part of it dealing with Limited Storage of Vehicles has been okay-ed so we can’t think of any reason why we shouldn’t pass it on to you.

The following is a liberal translation of the sections with the title ‘General’ and ‘Limited Storage’. We’ll shoot you the rest of the revision on ‘Dead Storage’, as soon as we get aholt of it


Before sticking your vehicles into live or dead storage there are a couple of things you’ve got to prepare and provide for:

1. Storage site. Store your unused vehicles in closed or covered buildings. If no buildings are handy, the great outdoors will do –but in selecting a site, try to pick a smooth, and well-drained spot. Except when the tactical situation calls for concealment, parking under low hanging limbs of trees should be avoided. (Low-flying Tarzans, sharp twigs and birds, you know) .

2. Preparation for Storage. Before being tucked away, vehicles, their parts and equipment have to be thoroughly cleaned, lubricated and inspected. Do this according to W.D. Q.M.C. Form 260, dealing with technical inspection. And unless you have a good reason why not, the vehicle should be thoroughly repaired and put in good mechanical condition. If you can’t make repairs before storing, attach a tag to the steering wheel specifying the repairs needed, and send a written report of these items to the officer in charge of the vehicles. Finally, when your vehicles have been either repaired or tagged, your next step is to prepare them for either limited or dead storage. As we mentioned above, we’ve got the dope on ‘Limited Storage’ – ‘Dead Storage’ will come later.

3. Spacing vehicles in park. Don’t throw your vehicles on the lot just any old way. Put them close enough together to conserve space and provide plenty of shade for the tires – but space them with enough room between vehicles to allow for servicing and inspections. Maybe it’s fun to see how close together they’ll go, but it doesn’t make the job, say, of checking the batteries, any easier.


Severe Conditions

4. Severe conditions. Remember, these regulations are for normal and average conditions. Extreme temperatures, quick temperature changes, very wet or very dry climates, dust, salty spray, corrosive vapors from nearby industrial plants, or any other condition that might annoy a truck that’s sitting quietly minding its own business, calls for special protective measures, figure them out to meet your own circumstances.

*A barefaced lie.

During World War II pin-ups were a mainstay of Army life. Perhaps it helped keep the lonely GI connected with the “girls back home.” The subjects of the pin-ups were many.  Some might be a recognizable movie star like say, Betty Grable and others may just be a painting of some unknown girl–representing the “All-American Girl”.

Many posters and prints are available on-line.  Below is an example of just one of the hundreds available.

Putting Away for the Duration
Putting Away for the Duration Art Print
Wright, David 
20 in. x 27 in.
Buy at AllPosters.com
Framed Mounted

Click on a link above and check out some of the fantastic pictures, prints, posters and other items available.  If a poster is not your style, how about a book?  For the Boys: The Racy Pin-Ups of World War II by Max Allan Collins.

You really need to know how to operate the WW2 jeep transmission.

You really need to know how to operate the WW2 jeep transmission.

It isn’t the strongest tranny box out in the woods…but it will do as long as you know what you are doing! So sit back and pay attention…

Do not try to down shift into 1st, unless the vehicle is basically at a stop. However, you could shift down to 2nd from 3rd. However, you should keep in mind the speeds recommended. You can see for the Intermediate gear (2nd) on the “Caution” plate that 41 MPH in high range (transfer case) is the highest recommended speed. Of course it also sez 60 MPH in high (3rd).

Looking at it another way based on the Willys MB/Ford GPW Speed Calculator if you were to get it into 2nd gear at 40.8 MPH you engine RPMs are calculated to be around 3700. That’s really pretty high as compared to say 41.4 MPH in 3rd with 2400 RPMs (much easier speed on your engine).

So slow your speeds down and then shift. Slowing down to just 30.9 MPH gets you into 2800 RPMs which is better. Drop it down to 25.4 MPH and you end up with 2300 RPMs (even better).

Basically you should neither over rev the engine for the speed you want to go at nor lug the engine (too few RPMs). That’s why we start off in 1st and work or way up to 3rd. While the jeep might be able to do it – it isn’t wise to lead off in 3rd from a dead stop.

Does your WW2 1/4-ton Willys MB or Ford GPW make excessive noise?  Is it coming from the transmission?

hjkhjkh khjkhjkh

What is it Bunkie?  Is your transmission noisy?

Here are some causes and solutions.

Incorrect driving practice Correct practice
Insufficient lubricant Add lubricant
Incorrect lubricant Correct practice
Gears or bearings broken or worn: shift fork bent; gears worn on spline Examine and replace faulty parts
Overheated transmission Check lubricant grade and supply

Take care of your transmission and it will take care of you–and last a long time.

You know if I can work on a WW2 jeep transmission so can you!  Why not check out this book and get to it!

Trouble Shooting And Rebuilding The T-84J


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